Welding robot is the most common automatic welding technology applied in developed countries abroad. Its welding quality and efficiency are much better than manual welding and other special welding machines. During the "Ninth Five-Year Plan", our factory began to promote the use of robot welding technology on a large scale. Germany CLOOS Austria IGM Japan OTC introduced 16 sets of welding robot systems for the welding of railway passenger car products, and achieved huge economic benefits. However, the welding robot application is a complex comprehensive system. Due to the constraints of other related industries, the welding robot application has experienced a difficult to flexible application. The welding robot application has been accepted by the factory and will be further promoted. The following is an introduction to the application of robots in our factory and the problems that need to be dealt with in the process of robot application.

2 Application of robot welding technology in railway passenger car products and problems and solutions 2.1 Application of welding robot in railway passenger car manufacturing 2.1.1 Application technology of welding robot without peripheral devices The standard robot body does not contain any positioners and any The sensor's 6-axis robot system is suitable for welding large-volume workpieces with a length of less than 1200mm. The beam of a railway passenger car bogie is of a square structure with a plate thickness of 16mm. There are 4 welds, each weld length is 1100mm, V The groove is welded in 3 layers, and the welding volume is very large. On this system, it is equipped with a domestic position memory shape welding positioner to realize the coordination action with the robot. With the minimum investment, the frame beam automatic welding workstation is completed. It is the earliest in the factory. Robot system put into production.

2 Application technology of the gantry running mechanism with head and tail frame positioner robot system The basic form of the system is a standard robot suspended on a gantry frame, the robot can walk about 6m on the gantry, and a head and tail frame change with adjustable stroke is below the gantry Positioner. The system is equipped with a touch sensor arc sensor for automatic gun cleaning peripheral configuration. The system is mainly suitable for welding straight side beams of passenger car frames. The length of the straight side beams is about 4m, the thickness is 16mm, and the length of each weld is 4m. Reflects the superiority of robot welding.

3 Gantry type mechanism with frame type dual-axis positioner robot system application technology Robot welding must ensure high quality. All welds must be welded in a flat position. The quasi-high-speed frame side beam welds of passenger cars are not a straight line, but a straight line and For the combination of curves, if a single-axis displacement robot is used, the vertical welding will inevitably be formed at the position of the curve, and the quality cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, for this type of side beams, our factory uses a frame-type positioner and a robot gantry running mechanism to realize the robot In coordination with the workpiece, the welding of the weld is kept in the flat position. In order to ensure the welding efficiency, the double wire welding is used for welding, which is more than double the efficiency of single wire welding and four times the efficiency of manual operation. The framework is composed of welding. Because the welding position is too complicated, the same type of robot system is also used.

4 Welding of cantilever robot system with L-type positioner bus frame bolster side frame and other components is a closed girth weld. If the head and tail rack or frame type welding positioner is used, the clamping part of the fixture It will inevitably cause welding dead zone. The L-shaped biaxial positioner is used to locate and clamp the center hole of the component to achieve full-position flat welding. Because the workpiece is more than 3m long, the L-type positioner must ensure that both ends are locked in the process dead.

5 Cantilever robot walking mechanism Welding the roof of the passenger car with 28 3m long ring welds and two 25m longitudinal seams, the welding volume is very large, and the transverse welding of the roof waist seam is difficult to guarantee the quality by hand. Our factory uses a cantilever Two robots are hung on the walking mechanism, the cantilever can walk 30m longitudinally on the ground, the two robots on the cantilever can complete automatic welding of all circumferential welds and longitudinal welds, and the weld tracking uses a laser sensor to overlap the thin plates. The structure and the adaptability of the laser sensor are better. The quality of the robot is greatly improved after automatic welding.

6 Aluminum alloy bus welding parts robot system Aluminium passenger car pillow beam traction beam and other parts, our factory uses robot welding technology, the basic mode of the equipment is a cantilever robot fixed on a 10m track, and a welding platform is arranged under the track and the robot The aluminum alloy parts are fixed on the welding platform with pneumatic clamps. The robot is equipped with META laser sensors. Using this system, the welding of important aluminum alloy parts is ensured.

2.2 Problems and Solutions in the Application Process of Welding Robots Welding robot applications are a complex system engineering, and must meet the requirements of robot welding applications in terms of application objects, structural design, equipment configuration, relevant previous process quality, production management and personnel quality. Prerequisites, otherwise the most advanced system may not produce the best parts, or even discard them. The problem is analyzed below.

1 Application object robot welding is suitable for selecting typical workpieces with large welding workload and short auxiliary time, or selecting workpieces that cannot be guaranteed by hand or other methods. Only in this way can the advantages of high efficiency and high quality of the robot be reflected. If the object selected for application has a long auxiliary time and a small amount of welding, especially when the position is relatively complicated, the sensor is difficult to use. Therefore, when selecting a workpiece, you must choose a relatively simple workpiece with a large welding workload. This is the first condition to ensure that the robot is used well. At the same time, the application object should meet the need to complete all welding on the robot. Manual work and automated cross-operation will put the robot The meaning of application is lost.

The welding robot system is a flexible system, which must meet the welding of workpieces with various structural forms. Therefore, the fixtures installed on the robot system must be replaced flexibly in order to adapt to the welding of different workpieces. It is impossible for robot equipment that only adapts to one workpiece. Fully utilized, it is impossible to reflect the superiority of the welding robot.

2 Design structure problem Robot welding is not a panacea. In the product structure design, it is necessary to leave sufficient working space for the robot. Changing the robot welding gun design or replacing the small-size welding gun is much more difficult than optimizing the design structure.

During robot welding, the arc tracking sensor is particularly effective for V-groove and fillet welds, and the tracking reliability of the cover and bottom welds of the groove is very poor. Therefore, in structural design, try to use V Type bevel corner welds.

3 sensor problems When robots weld thick plates, the most commonly used are contact sensors and arc sensors. Contact sensors are generally used to find the initial point of welding. Arc sensors are used to track the welding seam in the welding process. In practice, contact sensors are affected by workpieces The effect of surface pretreatment primer and oil stains cannot be reliably conducted, which makes it difficult to find the initial point of welding. In order to solve this problem, some manufacturers have designed high-voltage contact sensors to overcome the effects of surface oil stains and primers, but they cannot be completely solved. Reliability issues, therefore, in the application process of the robot, it is best to use accurate positioning for the initial point position, or leave the arc point distance in the product design, and then use arc tracking.

When robots weld thin plates or aluminum alloys, laser tracking is generally used. Laser tracking reliability is more reliable than arc and contact sensors, but the larger sensor head of the laser sensor will affect the welding gun working angle. It is not suitable for laser sensor operation in narrow operation occasions. When the sensor tracks the weld, the color difference of the metal on both sides of the weld should be small. If the color difference is too large, it will cause the tracking offset of the laser sensor.

4 The quality of the workpiece group and the quality of the workpiece and the workpiece are the prerequisites for the application of the robot. Every effort must be made to ensure the quality of the workpiece. When the size and weight of the workpiece are relatively large, it is difficult to be restricted by the traditional industry. Reaching the preliminary quality of workpieces in developed countries abroad, it is necessary to use robots flexibly according to the actual conditions of the factory. For example, it is important to ensure the positioning and pairing quality of the arc starting point, and the special position of the welding special position will cause the problem of slow work of the robot, and it is difficult to reflect the superiority4. Combined with the method used together, this is to ensure that we must adopt a flexible processing method when the existing industrial level is not compatible. It is very difficult to completely adopt the robot application mode of foreign developed countries in our country.

2.2.5 Management problems Due to the constraints of relevant industries in China, welding robots are difficult to achieve in certain large parts welding if they are completely used by foreign welding robots. Therefore, it is inevitable to require operation in the application of robot welding large parts The flexible use of welding procedures puts forward higher requirements on the quality of the operator. In robot application management, a person who is proficient in robot programming and welding process must be trained to track the application of welding robots on the spot. The maximum potential is of great significance.

The bus manufacturing industry has promoted and applied it in a large area, and achieved great improvement in welding quality and welding efficiency.

To use a robot well, the first condition is that the application object must be selected, and then the structural design, equipment configuration related to the previous process quality, and production management must be done to meet the prerequisites for robot welding applications.

The application of welding robots is a complex system engineering. Due to the constraints of relevant industries in China, the use of robots must adopt a flexible use method different from that of Western developed countries, in order to ensure that the robots can be used well when the related industries are not compatible.

Wang Yanjin (1965-), graduated from Dalian Railway Institute in 1992 with a master's degree in welding. He was assigned to Changchun Bus Factory in the same year and successively manufactured aluminum alloy high-speed car bodies. Technology development of aluminum alloy brazing railway passenger car lamps. Automatic welding production line for railway passenger car bogies. The development of China's first aluminum alloy car body automatic welding production line and a variety of welding automation technologies is the founder of the factory's welding automation technology. In 1997, it was rated as a technical expert and welding professional technology leader by the factory, and received a 50,000 yuan award from the factory. At the same time, it was rated as an excellent scientific and technological worker and a member of the manipulator expert group of the Ministry of Railways. He has visited Western countries for more than 10 times to receive technical training and further study, and has a high reputation in the welding application industry.

In this paper, in the application of image processing technology of the initial welding position guidance visual servo system of the welding robot, based on the image segmentation theory, the automatic threshold selection and connected domain segmentation technologies are used to successfully extract the target information in natural scenes. The experimental results show that the above method can obtain more accurate image information and has strong anti-interference ability.

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